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Purpose: This study examined the association of microalbuminuria (MAU), as determined by albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), with hypertension (HTN) among Turkish immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) living in deprived neighborhoods of The Hague, Netherlands. Methods: A total of 110 participants, physician-diagnosed with T2D, aged ≥ 30 years were recruited from multiple sources from The Hague, Netherlands in a cross-sectional design. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using automated office blood pressure equipment. Urine albumin was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. Urine creatinine was determined using the Jaffe method. MAU was defined as ACR ≥ 3.5 mg/mmol for females and/or ACR ≥ 2.5 mg/mmol for males. Results: MAU was present in 21% of Turkish immigrants with T2D. Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of having MAU were 6.6 times higher in hypertensive than those that were normotensive (p = 0.007; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19, 36.4). Conclusion: These findings suggest that HTN and MAU may be assessed as a standard of care for T2D management for this population. Prospective studies of diabetes outcomes are recommended to further verify these findings.


This work was originally published in Journal of Personalized Medicine available at

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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