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For decades, researchers have asserted that the preservice preparation for instructors of adult emergent bi/multilingual learners (EBLs) in the United States can be inconsistent, and access to ongoing professional development (PD) can be insufficient to address the demands of the 21st century classroom. A previous study conducted by the author revealed that instructors of adult EBLs felt adequately prepared to teach English, but they often felt ill-equipped to address the learning challenges and oppressive dynamics that might manifest in their adult English to Speakers of Other Language (ESOL) classrooms. This convergentmixed methods studywas a preliminary attempt to address these issues. Eighty-five participants recruited throughout the United States were asked to reflect on the degree to which challenges, like learning dis/abilities, and oppressive dynamics, like racism and sexism, were addressed in their preservice preparation and ongoing PD through a 20-item survey instrument administered via Qualtrics. The findings revealed that issues closely related to language teaching were more commonly addressed, but learning challenges and oppressive dynamics were inadequately addressed, if at all. Suggestions included interweaving discussions of these issues and dynamics throughout preservice coursework but exploring them more extensively in ongoing PD. Limitations of the study and areas for future research were also identified.


This is the author's accepted manuscript of the following article:

Housel, David A. Instructors Reflect on How their Preservice Preparation and Ongoing Professional Development Prepared Them to Address Oppressive Dynamics in Adult ESOL Programs in the United States. Equity in Education & Society, 2022, Vol. 1(2), pp. 186-201, © The Author(s) 2022.

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